A non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI) refers to brain damage caused by factors other than external trauma. These causes can include exposure to certain toxins, complications of an infection, or a symptom of a medical condition. A stroke is usually the most common cause of an nTBI, and understanding the signs and symptoms is necessary for implementing prevention measures and assessing treatment options.

A brain injury can have life-altering consequences for patients, impacting their physical well-being, cognitive functions, and emotional state. The implications of these injuries can significantly affect a person’s ability to perform daily tasks, maintain relationships, pursue their careers, or enjoy their hobbies.

Coping with these new circumstances is a challenging and ongoing process. However, understanding the nature of the injury and its underlying cause can help patients acquire the best treatment to provide the best outcome. 

Understanding Non-Traumatic Brain Injury

An nTBI is a complex medical condition that can significantly alter brain function and impact everyday functioning. It is caused by factors not involving external physical force to the head. These causes can include an illness, oxygen deprivation, aneurysms, metabolic disorders, or cardiac arrest, among many others.

It’s essential to differentiate nTBI from traumatic brain injury (TBI) as both types of brain damage are distinct in their etiologies (causation) and clinical presentations (treatment). While nTBIs arise internally, TBIs result from external forces impacting the head, leading to physical damage to the brain tissue. These can be events like a blow to the head, sports injury, or impact from a vehicular accident.

Implementing the proper diagnostic techniques is crucial in accurately diagnosing nTBI and developing appropriate treatment strategies for the injury. Comprehensive medical assessments of the condition can include taking detailed patient histories, neurological examinations, and advanced imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) scans.

By applying the appropriate diagnostic procedure, healthcare professionals can provide a timely and precise diagnosis of the injury and its underlying cause. This enables them to implement targeted interventions and rehabilitative measures that enhance patient outcomes and improve their overall quality of life.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

A non-traumatic brain injury can be characterized by a range of symptoms that can be difficult to detect. This is due to the fact that most of these symptoms are attributable to other conditions, while the possibility of a brain injury is almost never considered.

These symptoms need careful attention to provide a timely diagnosis for effective injury management. Several symptoms can be categorized as physical, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual symptoms:

Physical symptoms include:

  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Paralysis
  • Seizures
  • Insomnia
  • Light sensitivity
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Speech difficulties

Emotional symptoms include:

Cognitive symptoms include:

  • Problems with memory
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Impairment of decision-making skills
  • Shortened attention span

Perceptual symptoms result from a portion of the brain being affected by the injury, which alters the patient’s senses and changes how they perceive stimuli.

These include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Loss of balance
  • Increased sensitivity to pain
  • Smell and taste disorientation

Diagnosing an nTBI can be challenging as these symptoms might overlap with other neurological or psychological conditions. In many cases, the possibility of a non-traumatic brain injury may be considered late due to the absence of visible external injuries.

Nevertheless, seeking medical attention is still imperative if individuals experience any or a combination of the symptoms listed above to increase the likelihood of early intervention.

Common Causes of Non-Traumatic Brain Injury

nTBIs can result from a wide range of internal factors that impair the brain’s functioning. One of the most common causes of an nTBI is a stroke, which occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted, resulting in tissue damage and neurological impairments. Brain tumors can also lead to functional disturbances as a result of exerted pressure on the surrounding tissue, which can impair brain function.

Other causes of an nTBI include:

  • Aneurysm
  • Tumors
  • Seizure
  • Electric shocks
  • Neurotoxic poisoning (i.e., lead exposure, carbon monoxide poisoning)
  • Infectious diseases (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis)
  • Metabolic disorders (i.e., kidney failure, liver failure)
  • Drug abuse

Risk Factors Contributing to A Non-Traumatic Brain Injury

The risk factors for nTBI can vary based on individual circumstances and underlying health conditions. Identifying these risk factors associated with nTBI is vital for early recognition and appropriate management. Some of these risk factors include:

  • Advanced Age: The risk of nTBI increases with age as the individual becomes more vulnerable to various medical conditions. 
  • Family History and Genetic Predisposition: Some individuals are more genetically predisposed to certain diseases and conditions, increasing the likelihood of nTBI. These include hereditary conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases and mitochondrial disorders.
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Cardiovascular conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure), atherosclerosis (narrowing of blood vessels), and heart disease can also impact blood flow to the brain, which increases the risk of nTBI. These conditions can also increase the risk of stroke, resulting in nTBI.
  • Lifestyle Factors: Unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as poor nutrition, a sedentary lifestyle, smoking, illicit drug use, and excessive alcohol consumption, can elevate the risk of nTBI.
  • Medical Conditions: Metabolic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and chronic infections may predispose individuals to experience an nTBI.

Treatment Methods and Management Strategies for Non-Traumatic Brain Injuries

Treatment for nTBIs will depend on several factors and must be tailored to the specific individual to produce the best outcome. These treatment methods can include addressing specific brain issues, treating the underlying cause, and providing supportive care, rehabilitation, and education:


Based on a patient’s condition and medical history, a physician may prescribe certain medications to treat the underlying condition causing nTBI or the symptoms that appear.

Some common types of medications used in nTBI management include:

  • Pain Relievers: For patients experiencing headaches and other forms of pain, the physician may prescribe over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers like acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In more severe cases, prescription pain medications may be used under close medical supervision.
  • Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Corticosteroids or other anti-inflammatory medications may be prescribed to reduce brain inflammation.
  • Anticonvulsants: When the condition triggers seizures or epilepsy, anticonvulsant drugs may be prescribed to control or prevent seizure activity. 
  • Neuroprotective Agents: These medications help preserve brain function and prevent further damage to the brain.
  • Antidepressants or Anxiolytics: Patients who experience mood swings, depression, or anxiety can benefit from antidepressants or anxiolytics that help manage these symptoms.
  • Targeted Medications: Specific medications that target the underlying condition may be prescribed to treat the cause of the brain injury. These are done for infections, metabolic disorders, or vascular abnormalities that cause nTBIs.

Rehabilitation Therapies

Rehabilitation aims to improve a patient’s functional abilities, restore independence, and enhance their overall quality of life. The type of treatment they receive is tailored to the individual’s specific needs and can encompass different disciplines. Some of the most common types of rehabilitation therapies used include:

  • Physical Therapy: Aims to help patients resolve fatigue, regain their strength, and restore lost physical functions such as standing and walking.
  • Occupational Therapy: Helps patients regain independence when performing everyday functions, such as getting dressed and feeding themselves.
  • Speech Therapy: Helps patients improve their ability to understand and present information and restore their language and communication skills
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy: Teaches self-management skills to help the patient recover their memory, thinking, and problem-solving skills
  • Psychosocial Therapy: Focuses on addressing the emotional and psychological impact of nTBI through counseling, psychotherapy, or support groups.

Supportive Care

Supportive care refers to the comprehensive and compassionate approaches taken to meet the diverse needs of nTBI patients, especially those with chronic or progressive conditions. It does not directly target the underlying cause of the injury. However, it is still a critical aspect of its treatment and management. 

Supportive care is given to enhance the patient’s overall well-being, comfort, and quality of life. These can be in the form of providing daily living assistance, emotional support, symptom management, palliative care, or end-of-life care. 

Treatment of Underlying Conditions

In cases where an infection was the cause of the injury, metabolic disorder, or any other medical condition, targeted treatments can be provided to treat the underlying issue first. Addressing the main contributing factor is essential to slow down or halt the progression of the injury. 

Lifestyle Modifications

Adopting a healthy lifestyle can be beneficial in managing symptoms of an nTBI. Practices like maintaining a balanced diet and engaging in regular exercise are beneficial for managing chronic conditions like hypertension and diabetes, which contribute to an nTBI.

Get Specialized Care at Moody Neurorehabilitation

Moody Neurorehabilitation recognizes the importance of providing exceptional medical care and unwavering emotional support and guidance to nTBI patients during this challenging journey. We are committed to providing personalized care that aligns with patients’ challenges and goals.

Since 1982, Moody Neurorehabilitation has been at the forefront of brain injury treatment and patient care. Working with a multidisciplinary team of experts, we develop a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses each patient’s unique needs and improves their quality of life.

If you or a loved one has suffered a non-traumatic brain injury, contact us today to arrange a consultation with our experts.


Moody Neurorehabilitation Institute (Moody Neuro) provides personalized care to treat the unique challenges of brain injury with the singular purpose of achieving the best possible outcome for patients and their families.


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